The element carbon (C) occurs in nature in two different polymorphic forms, depending on the external (pressure and temperature) conditions. These forms are graphite, with a hexagonal structure, and diamond, with an isometric structure.Other common examples of polymorphs are calcite and aragonite. The composition of these two minerals is CaCO3, but calcite is rhombohedral while aragonite is orthorhombic.
A single chemical composition that can form polymorphs does so as a response to varying conditions of formation. The temperature, pressure, and chemical environment all affect the crystallization process and can determine the resulting polymorph. For example, diamond requires very high pressure to crystallize, while graphite forms at lower pressures. For the composition CaCO3, calcite is the high temperature-low pressure polymorph while aragonite forms at higher pressures and lower temperatures.
Many polymorphs are only stable within a certain range of physical conditions and solid-state transitions from one polymorph to another are possible. When low quartz silica sand, which is rhombohedral, is heated to above 1063°F (573°C), it instantaneously goes through an internal structural displacement, or shift, to form hexagonal high-quartz. This type of polymorphic transition is reversible if the temperature is lowered. Other polymorphic transitions involve extensive internal rearrangement and reconstruction of the crystal and subsequently require significantly more energy. The examples of diamond-graphite, pyrite-marcasite, and calcite-aragonite are all known as reconstructive transitions. The large amounts of energy required to effect these polymorphic changes makes the resulting mineral more stable and the process less reversible than with a displacive transition. Our innovation is a counter evolution process combining the best of designs found in nature and then making the reconstructive transition using the best available technology powered by alternative energy.
It should a matter of record: Alternative Energy encompasses all those things that do not consume fossil fuel. The following bullet points are seven recognized forms of mercantile ENERGY.
The built environment is currently constructed using a limited palette of traditional materials: wood, concrete, glass, steel, and polymer composites.
The traditional code approved materials contain high-embodied energy, and rely more easily on virgin natural resources. In order for these building materials to make it from the earth’s crust a lot of jobs and careers have become dependent.
Our strategy merely seeks to shift the paradigm by promoting a new and improved paradigm in the way we make things. We seek to maximize the potential from the adage “if its not grown, it must be mined” and do so by deploying smarter design, material testing, and building methods. If one’s trash is another’s treasure what potential our landfills possess given an economic incentive!
Our door is open to serious green partners and grantors.